Tsunami is a series of giant waves which generate due to the displacement of land beneath the water surface. This displacement disturbs the still water and generates tens of meters long waves. When the wave breaks at the shore, it’s height increases which become a cause of coastal destruction. The maximum height recorded, so far, is 278 feet. Other causes of tsunami include underwater volcanic eruptions, earthquake, explosions among others. In the human history, the most dreadful tsunami event was 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which affected 14 countries and killed thousands. Though the governments and international organizations are working toward mitigating the limitations and have succeeded with desirable results, it still is a major demerit to ecosystem and public at large.
Positive effects of tsunami:
Tsunami helps in knowing and making the world better.
The occurrence of a tsunami has led to the increased demand in predicting such disaster. This demand encourages governments of tsunami-prone countries to boost the technology that can forecast a tsunami attack. So far, the related measures undertook by the Japan, United States, Pacific Rim countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean include computer models ( to predict tsunami arrival), bottom pressure sensors ( to relay real-time information), and tsunami warning systems.
Such natural disasters educate humans with the capability of nature and earth. It stops humans to extend the man-made mistakes and make them aware of the consequences. These disasters have been the basis of every research geologists concluded so far. Without tsunami, the scientists would never realize the occurrence of an earthquake and volcanic eruptions underwater. Hence, tsunami provides the knowledge of underwater landscape and activities.
One basic positive effect of the tsunami is replacing buildings and roads. Tsunami damage public and private infrastructure, which forces the government to construct them to restart the normal life of the region. Such reconstructions bring more economy to the area and in turn, to the nation. It also encourages many businessmen to set up their businesses and earn profits.
Tsunami destruction brings opportunity to the firms dependent on government contracts. The need of construction increases competition in the market and many private companies come forward to invest in the construction and manufacturing.
Negative effects of tsunami:
Like every other disaster and calamity, tsunami drastically impacts the entire ecosystem.
Tsunami causes maximum damage to the coastal areas. It removes the coral reefs, which sustain marine lives. The trees and nesting sites, which are confined to the coastal area, are the most affected ones. Also, the flood caused by tsunami destroy farmland and plants grown for the consumption of human population.
A large amount of water gives effect to the water-borne diseases. The population of coastal areas becomes prey to several health issues. Also, water in combination with the material from houses and decaying bodies increases the risk of health problems for the rescuers.
Tsunami completely disrupts the local businesses. The tourism industry dominates coastal area and their businesses include hotels, restaurants, fun parks among others. And with the onset of the tsunami, thousands of people in these businesses lose their jobs directly or indirectly. Under this, the worst affected ones are local people who guide visitors and vendors. In addition, the damage to government and private property is huge which includes houses, hotels, offices, and shops.
Thousands of people die as a result of the tsunami. In the deadliest tsunami disaster, 0.23 million people lost their lives. Such deaths bring unanticipated calamity in the life of families.
The aftermath of tsunami puts a great pressure on the government budget. At first, the government had to spend a huge amount in the rescue operations and distribution of food and necessities to the affected families and community. Then, the need for replacing damaged roads and buildings eats up a big chunk of the budget, which limits the required spending in profitable matters.
Maximum damage takes place in the areas where the reports and warning of an impending tsunami do not reach and when local population or visitors are unaware of the early signs of the tsunami. To mitigate the consequences of the tsunami, the government of a country must provide measures to educate local communities about the tsunami and make provisions of early warnings by constantly monitoring tsunami-prone areas. In cases of a sudden tsunami, an individual must run for a high ground or toward an evacuation route. The government and public should support each other and work together in bringing back the affected life and areas to normal.